The Phillips Xpert XRD uses a long fine focus copper anode x-ray source, it incorporates the options for Bragg Brentano operation (theta /2 theta) for large bulk samples covering up to a maximum size of 100mm dia. x 100mm height and weighing 1kg and glancing incidence geometry for samples with thin coatings of just a few microns thickness. The theta/2theta mode has automatic slits on both the primary and secondary sides and a scan range of 0.75°- 143°. In glancing incidence mode a graphite monochromator is utilized to ensure the best possible resolution is achieved using this type of configuration. This is a versatile machine that is used for phase identification, crystallite size and quantitative analysis for bulk and thin layer materials
1.D. M. Moore and R. C. Reynolds, Jr., X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals, Oxford University Press, New York, Ch. 1, 2, & 3. 1989. (Plenum, New York, 1992).
2.M. F. C. Ladd and R. A. Palmer, Structure Determination by Crystallography, 3rd ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1994.
3.Jens Als-Nielsen and Des McMorrow, Elements of Modern X-ray Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2001
4.B. E. Warren, X-ray Diffraction, General Publishing Company, 1969, 1990 (Classic x-ray physics book)
5.B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, 1978 (Covers most techniques used in traditional material characterization)
6.D. Keith Bowen and Brian K. Tanner, High Resolution X-ray Diffractometry and Topography, Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 1998 (Semiconductors and thin film analysis)
7.H. Brumberger, Editor, Modern Aspects of Small-Angle Scattering, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993 (SAXS techniques)
8.Jan Drenth, Principles of Protein X-ray Crystallography, Springer, 1994 (Crystallography).
Phillips Xpert XRD Operating Instructions